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Logicmojo - Updated Jan 11, 2022



The topics of method overloading and method overriding should be on your list of things to do before the interview. We shall explain method overriding, its guidelines, and several instances in this article. So let's get started and learn about Java method overriding. First, you need to understand what a "parameter" is. If you are unsure of what parameters are. You are now prepared to comprehend method overriding.




What are parameters?

Java offers the idea of parameters, which are connected to constructors and user-defined methods. The user-defined constructors and methods in Java can accept zero, one, or several parameters. What are the parameters in Java, is the question here? Well! In Java, variables known as parameters can be of any data type, including bytes, strings, ints, floats, and others. Parameters can be supplied to methods or constructors. The constructors and methods in Java can accept one or more parameters.

static void showAge(int age) {
  System.out.println("Employee Age: " + age);
}


The user-defined function that accepts an integer type parameter in the aforementioned example is called showAge(). The static keyword demonstrates how the class name can be used to directly access the method "showAge()". The showAge() method doesn't return anything, as indicated by the void keyword.

The arguments are the actual parameters (values) that are supplied to the method when it is called.

What does Java's method overriding mean?

Java's Dynamic Polymorphism and Runtime principles are applied to the concept of method overriding. Just so you know, the OOPs notion of inheritance shows how parent classes (superclasses) and child classes relate to one another (subclass). The data member and methods in this case are inherited by the child class from the parent class. The concept of dynamic polymorphism, which resolves the programme at runtime, will also be explored in this article.

Why is Java Overriding Useful?

As was already explained, Java can accept polymorphism at runtime thanks to overridden methods. Another way Java implements polymorphism's "one application, many methods" principle is through overridden methods.
Dynamic Process Execution is the most useful tool that object-oriented programming offers in terms of code reuse and resilience. An exceptionally potent tool is the capacity to call methods on new class instances using pre-existing code libraries without re-compiling and while maintaining a clear abstract interface.
It is possible to invoke methods from any object of a derived class using overridden methods without specifying the form of the modified super-class.



Learn More

Guidelines for Method Overriding in Java




Access Modifiers and Overriding

The overridden method must not be more restrictive than the access level. Access levels can be more lenient than those of methods that are overridden.
For instance, it is possible to make a protected instance method in the parent class (superclass) public, but it cannot be made private in the child class (subclass). If you attempt to make a child class private, a compile-time error will be returned.

// Access Modifiers and Overriding Example

//Base class
class ParentClass {
    //Access modifier of parent's display() method is protected
    protected void displayfunc() {
        System.out.println("The parent method is executed");
    }
}

//Derived class 
class ChildClass extends ParentClass {
    
    //Below method overrides the Parent display() method 
    //Access modifier public is less restrictive than protected 
    @Override
    public void displayfunc() {
        System.out.println("The child method is executed");
    }
}
//Driver class 
public class Main {
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        ParentClass parentObject = new ParentClass(); 
        parentObject.displayfunc(); 
  
        ParentClass childObject = new ChildClass(); 
        childObject.displayfunc(); 
    }
}



Private methods can not be overridden

You cannot override secret methods in the parent class while using access modifiers, which is another restriction. The application will throw a compile-time error as shown below if a subclass tries to override a private method of a parent class.

//Base class or Superclass
class ParentClass {
    //Access modifier of parent method is private
    // This method can not override the child class method
    private void displayfunc() {
        System.out.println("The parent method is executed");
    }
}

//Derived class or Subclass
class ChildClass extends ParentClass {
    
    //Below method can not overrides the Parent display() method 
    //This method is unique to the child class
    private void displayfunc() {
        System.out.println("The child method is executed");
    }
}
//Driver class 
public class Main {
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        ParentClass parentObject = new ParentClass(); 
        parentObject.displayfunc(); // this line when execute will throw compiler error
  
        ParentClass childObject = new ChildClass(); 
        childObject.displayfunc(); // this line when execute will throw compiler error
    }
}


In Java, final methods cannot be overridden.
A final method cannot be overridden. If you attempt to do so, a compile-time error will be generated.

// Simple Java program showing 
// final methods cannot be overridden 
//Parent class or Superclass  
class ParentClass
{ 
    // Can't be overridden 
    final void displayfunc() {  } 
} 
//Child class or Subclass  
class ChildClass extends ParentClass
{ 
    // This would produce compile time error 
    void displayfunc() {  } 
} 


Static methods can not be overridden(Method Overriding vs Method Hiding) :

Method hiding occurs when a static method is defined with the same signature as a static method in the base class.

// Method hiding example

//Base class or SuperClass
class ParentClass {
    
    static void displayfunc() {
        System.out.println("The parent static method is executed");
    }
    
    void showfunc() {
        System.out.println("The parent non-static (instance) method is executed");
    }
}

//Derived class or SubClass
class ChildClass extends ParentClass {
    
    //This method hides the Parent display() method 
    static void displayfunc() {
        System.out.println("child static method is executed");
    }
    // This method overrides the Parent show() method
    void showfunc() {
        System.out.println("child non-static (instance) method is executed");
    }
}

//Driver Class
public class Main {
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        ParentClass childObject = new ChildClass();
        // static method can not be overridden,
        // so below line calls parent display() method
        childObject.displayfunc();
        // Expected child method will run
        childObject.showfunc(); 
    }
}


Calling a parent class method from an overridden method: The super keyword can be used to call a parent class method from an overridden method.

// Invoking SuperClass version of Overridden Method Example

//Base class or SuperClass
class ParentClass {
    
    void displayfunc() {
        System.out.println("the parent method is executed");
    }
}

//Derived class or SubClass
class ChildClass extends ParentClass {
    
    //This method overrides the Parent display() method 
    @Override
    void displayfunc() {
        super.displayfunc();
        System.out.println("the child method is executed");
    }
}

public class Main {
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        ParentClass childObject = new ChildClass(); 
        childObject.displayfunc();
    }
}


The return type for the overriding method must be the same (or Covariant return type)The return type of the method must be identical to or a subtype of the return type stated in the original overridden method in the superclass.
Since Java 5.0, it is now possible for an overriding method in a child class to have a different return type. But the return type for the child should be a subtype of the return type for the parent. It is known as covariant return type for this reason.

class Func1 {
    Func1 doStuff(char c) {
        return new Func1();
    }
}
class Func2 extends Func1 { 
    Func2 doStuff(char c) {  // legal override in Java 1.5
        return new Func2();
    }
} 
public class Main {
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        Func1 childObject = new Func2(); 
        childObject.doStuff('a'); 
    }
}

Overriding and Exception-Handling

Rule #1: If the method that was super-class overridden does not throw an exception, the method that was overridden by the subclass can only throw an unchecked exception; a checked exception will result in a compile-time error.

class ParentClass {
    void f1()
    {
        System.out.println("From parent f1()");
    }
  
    void f2()
    {
        System.out.println("From parent  f2()");
    }
}
  
class ChildClass extends ParentClass {
    @Override
    // no issue while throwing unchecked exception
    void f1() throws ArithmeticException
    {
        System.out.println("From child f1()");
    }
  
    @Override
    // compile-time error
    // issue while throwing checked exception
    void f2() throws Exception
    {
        System.out.println("From child f2");
    }
}


Rule #2: A subclass overriding method may only throw the same, subclass exception if the super-class overridden method throws an exception. In the Exception hierarchy, throwing a parent exception will result in a compile-time error. If the overridden method of the subclass does not throw any exceptions, there is also no problem.

Overriding and abstract methods
Only the first concrete class (classes without abstract methods) is permitted to override abstract methods; otherwise, a compiler error will be generated.

abstract class ParentClass
{
  public abstract void displayfunc( int x, String j);
}
//Subclass or Derived Class
class ChildClass extends ParentClass
{
    @Override
    public void displayfunc( int x, String j )
    { 
        System.out.println("the child method is executed");
    }
}
//Driver class
public class Main {
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        ParentClass childObject = new ChildClass(); 
        childObject.displayfunc(1, "Hey it's Awesome"); 
    }
}


When is the Best Time to Use Java Overriding?

One of the keys to successfully using polymorphism is to identify the parent classes and child classes that build a hierarchy that moves from lower to higher productivity.
When utilised properly, the parent class holds all the variables that a child class would have direct access to. It also specifies which procedures the child class must carry out on its own.
This enables the child class to communicate its methods while maintaining a uniform interface. By combining inheritance with overridden methods, a parent class will decide the general form of the methods that are utilised by all of its child classes.

Let's have a look at a method overriding example that is more realistic. Take into account an employee management system for a company. The code should have a basic base class called Employee, and the class should have methods like raiseSalary(), transfer(), promote(), etc. The methods available in base class Employee may have different implementations for various sorts of employees, such as Manager, Engineer, etc. Without even understanding the sort of employee, we just need to pass a list of employees everywhere in our whole software and call the necessary methods. For instance, by going through the list of employees repeatedly, we may quickly increase the salaries of all the employees. We shouldn't be concerned if each employee type has logic in its class as long as raiseSalary() is available for that employee.

Benefits of Coding with the @Override Annotation

Oracle documentation states that

 // mark method as a superclass method
   // that has been overridden
   @Override 
   int overriddenMethod() { }

The @Override annotation notifies the compiler that an element declared in a superclass is intended to be overridden by the current element.
It is not necessary to use this annotation when overriding a method, however doing so helps to avoid mistakes. The compiler generates an error if a method with the @Override annotation fails to correctly override a method in one of its superclasses.

Benefits of Overriding Method

Writing generic code based on the parent class is made easier by method overriding.
The super keyword can be used to call the overridden methods of the parent class and it provides several implementations of the same method.
It establishes the possible actions for a class.

Overloading vs Overriding

Overloading is a run-time polymorphism example, whereas Overriding is a compile-time polymorphism example.
Overloading arguments must be distinct in the method. Parameters that are overriding must be the same (different if covariant return type).
Method overloading makes the programme easier to read. In contrast, method overriding offers a particular use of the method.




Real time example of method overriding in Java



Parent-child relationships are a good illustration of inheritance. Many of a parent's and child's real-world behaviours can be overridden in nature. For instance, singing is a typical practise that parents and children share, however a child's singing style may differ from that of his parent. One may be a rock singer, while the other may be a classical singer.
Similar situations might arise with other behaviours, such as dancing, speaking, teaching, etc., when a parent and child may approach the same activity in a different way. The same holds true for various other species and objects.

 class Person {
    void teachfunc() {    
      System.out.println("Let's study");
    } 
 }
 
 class Teacher extends Person {   
    void teachfunc() {
      System.out.println("Let's start with English");
    }    
    public static void main(String [] args) {
      Teacher teacher = new Teacher();  
      teacher.teachfunc();
      Person person = new Teacher();  
      person.teachfunc();
      Person person2 = new Person();  
      person2.teachfunc();     
    }
 }

How does JVM select the method to invoke when it is running?

The JVM first verifies the real type of the object invoking the method before calling the corresponding method on that actual type. The type that is used with the new keyword is the actual type of an object. For instance, when you call new Teacher() on an object, the object will actually be of type Teacher and will therefore call the Teacher class method regardless of whether it was assigned to the Teacher class type or the Person class type.

FAQs

How can I stop Java programmers from overriding a method without using the final modifier?

In Java, there are a few peculiar approaches to avoid method overriding. Although the final modifier is only used for that, method overriding can be avoided by using the private keyword. A method override is possible only if the class is extendible. If the parent class's constructor is made private, it will be impossible to extend that class since the subclass's constructor will not automatically call the parent class's constructor. Therefore, it is not feasible to override any of that class's methods.

In Java, is the constructor overridable?

No. Constructors in Java cannot be overridden because they are not inherited. Constructs can be overloaded but not overridden. Constructors cannot be overridden in Java since they are not inherited and always have the same name as the class. Overriding only occurs in the child class.

Can the static technique be modified?

There won't be any runtime polymorphism for static methods. Therefore, static methods cannot be modified. However, if a child class has a specified static method with a similar signature as a parent class's static method, the parent class's static method will be concealed by the child class's static method.

Note:

The virtual keyword is required to implement overriding or Run Time Polymorphism in C++. In Java, methods are synthetic by nature.
Process override at multiple levels is possible.
The child class increases the capabilities of the parent class through overriding.
For code scalability, method overriding implements polymorphism and inheritance.

Conclusions

When a subclass (child class) in Java contains the same method as the parent class, this is known as method overriding. In other words, a subclass implements a method that was declared by one of its parent classes in a certain way. This is known as method overriding. A class can inherit from a superclass with "near enough" actions and then modify it as necessary thanks to the ability of a subclass to override a method. The overriding method's return type, name, number, and parameter types are all the same as those of the method it overrides.


Good luck and happy learning!








Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


In Java, method overriding is a feature of object-oriented programming that allows a subclass to provide a different implementation of a method that is already defined in its superclass. Method overriding enables polymorphism and is a way to implement runtime polymorphism in Java. Here's a detailed explanation of method overriding in Java:

1. Inheritance and Method Overriding:

- Method overriding is closely related to inheritance, as it occurs when a subclass inherits a method from its superclass and provides its own implementation for that method.

- The method in the superclass is said to be overridden by the method in the subclass.

2. Method Signature:

- To override a method, the method in the subclass must have the same method name, return type, and the same parameter types (or compatible parameter types) as the method in the superclass.

- The method signature includes the method name and the parameter types.

3. @Override Annotation:

- It is a good practice, though not required, to use the `@Override` annotation when overriding a method in Java.

- The `@Override` annotation informs the compiler that the method is intended to override a method in the superclass. It helps catch errors at compile-time if the method signature does not match a method in the superclass.

4. Rules for Method Overriding:

- The method in the subclass must have the same access modifier or a more accessible modifier than the method in the superclass.

- The method in the subclass must not throw any new or broader checked exceptions than the method in the superclass. It can throw fewer exceptions or subclasses of the exceptions thrown by the superclass.

- The method in the subclass cannot have a different return type than the method in the superclass, except when using covariant return types (returning a subclass of the return type in the superclass).

Method overriding is a powerful feature of Java that allows subclasses to provide their own implementation of inherited methods. It enables code reuse, enhances flexibility, and supports polymorphism, where a superclass reference can be used to refer to objects of different subclasses and execute the appropriate overridden method at runtime.


Method overriding and method overloading are both important concepts in Java, but they are different in terms of their purpose and implementation. Here's a detailed explanation of method overriding and method overloading, highlighting their differences:

1. Method Overriding:

- Method overriding occurs when a subclass provides its own implementation of a method that is already defined in its superclass.

- The method in the subclass must have the same name, return type, and parameter types (or compatible parameter types) as the method in the superclass.

- Method overriding is used to achieve runtime polymorphism and dynamic method dispatch.

- The decision of which method implementation to execute is made at runtime based on the actual type of the object.

- The `@Override` annotation is commonly used to indicate that a method is intended to override a method in the superclass.

- Example:

     class Animal {
         public void makeSound() {
             System.out.println("Animal makes sound");
         }
     }

     class Cat extends Animal {
         @Override
         public void makeSound() {
             System.out.println("Cat meows");
         }
     }
    

In this example, the `Cat` class overrides the `makeSound` method from the `Animal` class to provide its own implementation.

2. Method Overloading:

- Method overloading occurs when multiple methods in the same class have the same name but different parameter lists (different number of parameters or different types of parameters).

- Overloaded methods can have different return types, access modifiers, and can throw different exceptions.

- Method overloading is used to provide different ways to invoke a method with different argument combinations.

- The compiler decides which overloaded method to call based on the number and types of arguments in the method invocation.

- Overloaded methods may or may not have a relationship of inheritance or subclass-superclass.

- Example:

     class Calculator {
         public int add(int a, int b) {
             return a + b;
         }

         public double add(double a, double b) {
             return a + b;
         }
     }
    

In this example, the `Calculator` class has two overloaded `add` methods—one for integers and another for doubles—allowing the addition of different types of values.

3. Key Differences:

- Method overriding is about providing a new implementation of an existing method in a subclass, while method overloading is about providing multiple methods with the same name but different parameters in the same class.

- Method overriding is determined by the relationship between a subclass and its superclass, while method overloading is determined by the method signatures within a single class.

- Method overriding is used to achieve runtime polymorphism and dynamic method dispatch, while method overloading is used to provide multiple ways of invoking a method with different argument combinations.

In summary, method overriding is about providing a new implementation of an inherited method in a subclass, while method overloading is about providing multiple methods with the same name but different parameters within a class. Method overriding supports polymorphism and dynamic dispatch, while method overloading allows for more flexible method invocation within a single class.


In Java, the `main` method is not overridden in the usual sense of method overriding. Instead, it is defined in each Java application as the entry point for the program. It is a convention that Java applications should have a `main` method with a specific signature, but it is not actually inherited from any superclass or interface. Here's a detailed explanation of the `main` method in Java:

1. Entry Point of Java Programs:

- The `main` method serves as the entry point of a Java program. When the Java program is executed, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) looks for the `main` method to start the execution of the program.

- The JVM starts executing the program from the `main` method and proceeds to execute other parts of the program based on the logic defined within the `main` method and subsequent method calls.

2. Method Signature:

- The `main` method in Java has a specific signature that must be followed:

- It must be declared as `public`, which allows the JVM to access it.

- It must be declared as `static`, which means it belongs to the class rather than an instance of the class.

- It must have a return type of `void`, indicating that it does not return a value.

- It must be named `main`.

- It must accept an array of strings (`String[] args`) as the parameter, which allows command-line arguments to be passed to the program.

3. Example of `main` Method:

   public class HelloWorld {
       public static void main(String[] args) {
           System.out.println("Hello, World!");
       }
   }

In this example, the `main` method is defined in the `HelloWorld` class, and it prints the message "Hello, World!" to the console when the program is executed.

4. Role of the `main` Method:

- The `main` method serves as the starting point of execution for a Java program. It allows you to specify the initial behavior of the program.

- Inside the `main` method, you can define and call other methods, create objects, and perform various operations based on the requirements of your program.

- The `main` method can accept command-line arguments as an array of strings (`args`). These arguments can be passed when executing the Java program from the command line and can be used to provide input or configuration to the program.

To summarize, the `main` method in Java is not overridden but rather serves as the entry point for the program's execution. It has a specific signature and is conventionally named `main`. The JVM looks for this method to start executing the program, and it allows you to define the initial behavior and logic of your Java application.


Method overriding is used in object-oriented programming languages, including Java, to achieve polymorphism and provide specific implementations of methods in derived classes that are different from those in the base class. Here's a detailed explanation of why method overriding is used:

1. Polymorphism:

- Method overriding is a key mechanism to achieve polymorphism, which allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass.

- Polymorphism enables code flexibility, extensibility, and reusability by allowing different objects to respond differently to the same method invocation based on their actual types.

- With method overriding, a method in a derived class can have the same name as a method in the base class, but the actual implementation is based on the specific class being referred to at runtime.

2. Dynamic Method Dispatch:

- Method overriding enables dynamic method dispatch, where the decision of which implementation to execute is made at runtime based on the actual type of the object rather than the reference type.

- This allows for more flexible and dynamic behavior, as the same method invocation can produce different results depending on the actual object being referred to.

3. Specialization and Customization:

- Method overriding allows derived classes to provide their own specialized implementation of a method inherited from a base class.

- Derived classes can customize or extend the behavior of inherited methods to suit their specific requirements, while still adhering to the common interface defined by the base class.

4. Code Extensibility:

- Method overriding enables the extensibility of code by allowing new classes to inherit from existing classes and modify or extend the behavior of inherited methods without modifying the original code.

- It promotes code reuse, as existing classes and methods can be leveraged to build new functionality.

5. Principle of Substitution:

- Method overriding adheres to the Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP), a fundamental principle of object-oriented design.

- LSP states that objects of a superclass should be able to be substituted by objects of its subclasses without affecting the correctness of the program.

- By adhering to LSP, method overriding ensures that derived classes can be used interchangeably with the base class, allowing for more flexible and modular code design.

Method overriding is used to achieve polymorphism, customize behavior, enable dynamic method dispatch, promote code extensibility, and adhere to fundamental principles of object-oriented design. It is a powerful mechanism that enhances code flexibility, reusability, and modularity in object-oriented programming.


In Java, it is possible to overload the `main` method, which means you can have multiple `main` methods with different parameter lists in the same class. However, only the `main` method with the standard signature `public static void main(String[] args)` is recognized as the entry point of the program by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Here's a detailed explanation of overloading the `main` method in Java:

1. Method Overloading:

- Method overloading is a feature in Java that allows multiple methods with the same name but different parameter lists to coexist in the same class.

- Overloaded methods have different argument lists, which can differ in the number of parameters, types of parameters, or both.

2. Standard `main` Method:

- The standard `main` method with the signature `public static void main(String[] args)` serves as the entry point of a Java program.

- This specific signature is recognized by the JVM, and it is the method that is called when the program is executed.

- It accepts an array of strings (`args`) as a parameter, which allows command-line arguments to be passed to the program.

3. Overloaded `main` Methods:

- While it is possible to define additional `main` methods with different parameter lists, they are not recognized as the entry point of the program by the JVM.

- Overloaded `main` methods can be used for other purposes, such as testing or providing alternative entry points within the same class.

- However, they need to be explicitly called from within the program to be executed, as they are not automatically invoked by the JVM.

4. Example of Overloaded `main` Method:

   public class Main {
       public static void main(String[] args) {
           System.out.println("Standard main method");
       }

       public static void main(String arg1) {
           System.out.println("Overloaded main method with one parameter");
       }

       public static void main(String arg1, String arg2) {
           System.out.println("Overloaded main method with two parameters");
       }
   }
 

- In this example, the `Main` class contains multiple `main` methods with different parameter lists.

- However, when the program is executed, only the `main` method with the standard signature is automatically invoked by the JVM as the entry point.

- To execute the overloaded `main` methods, they need to be explicitly called from within the program.

5. Usage of Overloaded `main` Methods:

- Overloaded `main` methods can be useful for various purposes such as:

- Testing different scenarios or variations of program behavior.

- Providing alternative entry points for different execution paths within the same class.

- Accepting different types of command-line arguments or custom arguments for specific program behaviors.

In summary, while it is possible to overload the `main` method in Java by defining multiple methods with different parameter lists, only the `main` method with the standard signature (`public static void main(String[] args)`) is recognized as the entry point of the program by the JVM. Overloaded `main` methods can be used for other purposes within the program but need to be explicitly called to be executed.


In Java, static methods cannot be overridden in the traditional sense of method overriding. When a subclass declares a static method with the same signature as a static method in its superclass, it is actually hiding the superclass method rather than overriding it. Here's a detailed explanation of why static methods cannot be overridden in Java:

1. Static Methods and Inheritance:

- Static methods belong to the class itself rather than to any specific instance of the class.

- Inheritance in Java allows subclasses to inherit methods and fields from their superclasses.

- However, static methods are not inherited by subclasses in the same way as instance methods. They are associated with the class and not with the objects created from the class.

2. Hiding Static Methods:

- When a subclass defines a static method with the same name, return type, and parameters as a static method in the superclass, it hides the superclass method rather than overriding it.

- This means that when calling the method using a reference to the subclass, the hidden static method in the subclass will be invoked, regardless of the actual type of the object.

3. Alternative Approach:

- If you want to override the behavior of a method in a subclass, you need to declare it as an instance method (non-static) and use method overriding.

- Instance methods can be overridden in subclasses, allowing for polymorphism and dynamic method dispatch based on the actual object's type.

In summary, static methods cannot be overridden in Java. When a subclass declares a static method with the same signature as a static method in its superclass, it actually hides the superclass method rather than overriding it. Static methods are associated with the class itself, and their behavior is determined by the reference type rather than the actual object's type. To achieve polymorphism and dynamic method dispatch, instance methods should be used with method overriding.


One example of method overriding in Java is the `toString()` method, which is a method defined in the `Object` class and overridden in various subclasses. The `toString()` method is used to return a string representation of an object. Here's a detailed explanation of the `toString()` method and its overriding in Java:

1. `toString()` Method:

- The `toString()` method is defined in the `Object` class, which is the root class for all classes in Java.

- By default, the `toString()` method in the `Object` class returns a string that consists of the class name, an at-sign, and the hexadecimal representation of the object's memory address.

- The `toString()` method is intended to be overridden in subclasses to provide a meaningful string representation of the object's state.

2. Overriding the `toString()` Method:

- Subclasses can override the `toString()` method to provide a customized string representation that reflects the specific state and properties of the object.

- The overridden `toString()` method should return a `String` object that represents the object's state in a human-readable format.

- The `toString()` method should not modify the object's state; it should only return a string representation.

3. Example:

   class Student {
       private String name;
       private int age;

       public Student(String name, int age) {
           this.name = name;
           this.age = age;
       }

       @Override
       public String toString() {
           return "Student [name=" + name + ", age=" + age + "]";
       }
   }

   public class Main {
       public static void main(String[] args) {
           Student student = new Student("John Doe", 20);
           System.out.println(student.toString());
       }
   }

- In this example, the `Student` class overrides the `toString()` method inherited from the `Object` class.

- The overridden `toString()` method returns a customized string representation of the `Student` object, including the `name` and `age` properties.

- The `toString()` method is automatically called when the `student` object is passed to `System.out.println()`, which converts the object to a string using the overridden `toString()` method and prints it to the console.

4. Output:

   Student [name=John Doe, age=20]

- The output demonstrates the customized string representation of the `Student` object, which includes the `name` and `age` properties.

The `toString()` method is just one example of method overriding in Java. It allows for the customization of the string representation of an object, providing a more meaningful and human-readable output. Method overriding in general enables the modification or extension of inherited methods to suit the specific requirements of subclasses, allowing for polymorphism and dynamic method dispatch.


No, we cannot override final methods in Java. The `final` keyword applied to a method in a class indicates that the method implementation cannot be modified or overridden by any subclass. Once a method is declared as `final`, it becomes a sealed implementation that cannot be changed. Here's a detailed explanation of why we cannot override final methods in Java:

1. Final Methods:

- A final method is a method that is declared with the `final` keyword in its method signature.

- Once a method is marked as `final` in a class, it cannot be overridden or modified by any subclass.

- Final methods are often used to enforce specific behavior in a class and prevent it from being changed by subclasses.

2. Preventing Method Overriding:

- The purpose of marking a method as `final` is to prevent subclasses from modifying the behavior of the method or providing their own implementation.

- By making a method `final`, it becomes a sealed implementation that cannot be changed or overridden.

3. Example:

   class Parent {
       public final void display() {
           System.out.println("Parent class display method");
       }
   }

   class Child extends Parent {
       // Cannot override the final method
       // Compiler error: Cannot override the final method from Parent
       public void display() {
           System.out.println("Child class display method");
       }
   }

- In this example, the `display()` method in the `Parent` class is declared as `final`.

- The `Child` class attempts to override the `display()` method, but it results in a compilation error because final methods cannot be overridden.

4. Final Methods and Class Design:

- Final methods are often used in class design when there is a need to ensure that a specific behavior or functionality cannot be modified by subclasses.

- Final methods can provide important functionality that should not be changed, such as critical operations or implementations specific to the class.

5. Final Classes and Methods:

- In addition to final methods, entire classes can be declared as `final` in Java.

- A `final` class cannot be subclassed, and its methods are implicitly `final` and cannot be overridden.

- This prevents any further modification or extension of the class and its methods.

In summary, we cannot override final methods in Java. The `final` keyword applied to a method ensures that its implementation cannot be modified or overridden by any subclass. Final methods provide a sealed behavior that cannot be changed, ensuring the integrity and consistency of class behavior.


Method overriding in Java is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming that allows a subclass to provide its own implementation of a method that is already defined in its superclass. It enables polymorphism and dynamic method dispatch, offering several benefits and use cases. Here's a detailed explanation of the use of method overriding in Java:

1. Polymorphism:

- Method overriding is primarily used to achieve polymorphism, which is a key feature of object-oriented programming.

- Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass, providing a more flexible and extensible code structure.

- By overriding methods in subclasses, different objects can respond differently to the same method invocation based on their actual types.

- This flexibility allows for code reuse and simplifies the handling of diverse objects through a common interface.

2. Dynamic Method Dispatch:

- Method overriding enables dynamic method dispatch, where the appropriate implementation of an overridden method is resolved at runtime based on the actual type of the object.

- Dynamic method dispatch allows for greater flexibility and adaptability in the program's behavior, as the decision of which method implementation to execute is deferred until runtime.

- This dynamic behavior ensures that the most appropriate method implementation is invoked based on the actual object's type, supporting polymorphism and providing runtime flexibility.

3. Customization and Specialization:

- Method overriding allows subclasses to provide their own specialized implementations of inherited methods.

- Subclasses can customize or extend the behavior of inherited methods to suit their specific requirements.

- This customization allows for fine-grained control over the behavior of objects, enabling specialized functionality or modifications to the inherited behavior.

4. Code Extensibility and Flexibility:

- Method overriding promotes code extensibility by allowing new classes to inherit from existing classes and modify or extend the behavior of inherited methods without modifying the original code.

- It provides a mechanism to enhance or specialize the functionality of a class without affecting its original implementation.

- Method overriding supports a modular approach to code design, where new functionality can be added through subclasses without modifying existing code, thereby ensuring code stability and minimizing the risk of introducing errors.

5. Principle of Substitution:

- Method overriding adheres to the Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP), a fundamental principle of object-oriented design.

- LSP states that objects of a superclass should be able to be substituted by objects of its subclasses without affecting the correctness of the program.

- By adhering to LSP, method overriding ensures that derived classes can be used interchangeably with the base class, allowing for more flexible and modular code design.

In summary, method overriding in Java is used to achieve polymorphism, customize behavior, enable dynamic method dispatch, promote code extensibility, and adhere to the principles of object-oriented design. It provides flexibility, code reuse, and the ability to specialize or modify behavior in derived classes while maintaining a common interface. Method overriding is a key mechanism for achieving flexible and maintainable code in object-oriented programming.


Method overriding in Java offers several advantages that contribute to the flexibility, extensibility, and maintainability of object-oriented code. Here are the advantages of method overriding explained in detail:

1. Polymorphism:

- Method overriding enables polymorphism, a core principle of object-oriented programming.

- Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass.

- By overriding methods in subclasses, different objects can respond differently to the same method invocation based on their actual types.

- This polymorphic behavior provides flexibility, code reuse, and simplifies the handling of diverse objects through a common interface.

2. Code Reusability:

- Method overriding promotes code reusability by allowing derived classes to inherit and reuse the method definitions from their superclasses.

- Instead of rewriting the same method implementation in each subclass, the subclass can simply override the method inherited from the superclass.

- This reduces code duplication, improves code maintainability, and ensures consistency in behavior across related classes.

3. Customization and Specialization:

- Method overriding allows subclasses to provide their own specialized implementations of inherited methods.

- Subclasses can customize or extend the behavior of inherited methods to suit their specific requirements.

- This customization enables fine-grained control over the behavior of objects, allowing for specialized functionality or modifications to the inherited behavior.

4. Dynamic Method Dispatch:

- Method overriding enables dynamic method dispatch, where the appropriate implementation of an overridden method is resolved at runtime based on the actual type of the object.

- Dynamic method dispatch allows for greater flexibility and adaptability in the program's behavior, as the decision of which method implementation to execute is deferred until runtime.

- This dynamic behavior ensures that the most appropriate method implementation is invoked based on the actual object's type, supporting polymorphism and providing runtime flexibility.

5. Principle of Substitution:

- Method overriding adheres to the Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP), a fundamental principle of object-oriented design.

- LSP states that objects of a superclass should be able to be substituted by objects of its subclasses without affecting the correctness of the program.

- By adhering to LSP, method overriding ensures that derived classes can be used interchangeably with the base class, allowing for more flexible and modular code design.

6. Flexibility and Extensibility:

- Method overriding enhances the flexibility and extensibility of code by allowing new classes to inherit from existing classes and modify or extend the behavior of inherited methods without modifying the original code.

- It provides a mechanism to enhance or specialize the functionality of a class without affecting its original implementation.

- This promotes modular code design, where new functionality can be added through subclasses without modifying existing code, ensuring code stability and minimizing the risk of introducing errors.

7. Object-Oriented Design Principles:

- Method overriding aligns with the core principles of object-oriented design, such as encapsulation, inheritance, and abstraction.

- It facilitates encapsulation by allowing the definition and implementation of behaviors specific to individual classes.

- Method overriding promotes the inheritance hierarchy by providing the ability to modify or extend behavior inherited from superclasses.

- It supports abstraction by defining a common interface in the superclass and allowing subclasses to provide their own implementations.

In summary, method overriding in Java offers advantages such as polymorphism, code reusability, customization, dynamic method dispatch, adherence to design principles, and overall flexibility and extensibility. It enables the creation of modular and maintainable code, encourages code reuse, and provides the ability to tailor the behavior of classes to suit specific requirements.