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Logicmojo - Updated Jan 9, 2024

What is Deep Learning?

Deep learning can indeed be considered of as a branch of machine learning. This is a research area that is based on self-learning and improvement through the examination of computer algorithms. Deep learning, as opposed to machine learning, appears to work with artificial neural networks, which have been designed to mimic how humans think and learn.

Till the recently, neural networks were restricted in complexity due to computing power constraints. Advances in Big Data analytics, on the other hand, have enabled larger, more sophisticated neural networks, enabling computers to observe, gain knowledge, and respond to complex situations more quickly than humans. Image classification, language translation, and speech recognition have all benefited from deep learning. It can help address whatever pattern recognition problem without the need for human intervention.

Deep learning is driven by artificial neural networks with several layers. Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are networks in which every layer can perform complicated tasks like representation and abstraction to make logical sense of images, sound, and text. Deep learning, the quickest field in machine learning, is a revolutionary change digital era that is being used by an increasing number of businesses to develop entirely new business models.

what is deep learning

How deep learning works?

Deep learning neural networks, also known as artificial neural networks, aim to simulate the human brain by combining input information, weights, and bias. These components collaborate to accurately recognise, characterise, and define objects in data.

Deep neural networks are composed of numerous layers of interconnected nodes, with each layer improving and optimising the prediction or categorization. Forward propagation refers to the movement of computations through a network. The visible layers of a deep neural network are indeed the input and output layers. The deep learning model ingests data for processing in the input layer, and the the last prediction or categorisation is made in the output layer.

Backpropagation is an another technique that employs algorithms such as gradient descent to determine prediction errors and afterwards needs to adjust the weights and biases of the function by running backwards through the layers in order to develop the model. Forward and backpropagation collaborate to enable a neural network to draw conclusions and rectify for errors. The algorithm begins to improve in accuracy over period.

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Components of deep learning

The below are the parts of a deep Learning network.

  1. Input Layer

  2. Hidden Layer

  3. Output Layer

what is deep learning

Input layer:

Several nodes feed data into an artificial neural network. The system's input layer is made up of these nodes.

Hidden layer:

The data is processed and passed to the next layer of the neural network by the input layer. These hidden layers process information at various levels, adapting their behaviour as new information is received. Deep learning networks have hundreds of hidden layers that can be used to analyse a problem from various perspectives.

For instance, if you were provided a picture of an unidentified animal to categorise, you would make a comparison it to animals you are familiar with. For example, you would examine the shape of its eyes and ears, as well as its size, number of legs, and fur pattern.

Deep neural network hidden layers function similarly. When a deep-learning algorithm attempts to classify an image of an animal, every one of its hidden layers methods an unique type of the animal and attempts to accurately categorise it.

Output layer:

The nodes that output data comprise the output layer. The output layer of deep learning algorithms that output "yes" or "no" answers has only two nodes. Those that output a broader variety of answers, on the contrary hand, have so much more nodes.

Architecture Of Deep learning

Deep Neural Networks:DNN

It refers to a neural network that combines the certain degree of complexity, which indicates that many hidden layers are included between both the input and output layers. They excel at modelling and processing non-linear relationships.

Deep Belief Network: DBN

DBN is a multiple layer network (typically deep, with several hidden layers) in which each connected pair of layers is just a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM). As a result, we can say that DBN is a collection of RBMs. DBN is made up of multiple layers of latent variables ("hidden units"), with connections between both the layers but not between each layer.

DBNs generate output using probabilities and unsupervised learning. In contrast to other models, DBN learns the entire input. The first layers of CNNs single most important filter inputs for basic features, and the subsequent layers recombine all of the simple patterns discovered by the previous layers. DBNs work holistically, regulating each layer in sequence.

Recurrent Neural Networks: RNN

RNN is a fundamental network architecture that serves as the foundation for other deep learning architectures. RNNs are a diverse collection of deep learning architectures. They can process variable-length sequences of inputs by using their internal state (memory). Assume that RNNs have memory. Every processed data point is captured, saved, and used to determine the final result. This makes them beneficial in applications such as speech recognition.

Furthermore, the recurrent network may include connections that feed back into previous layers (or even into the same layer). This feedback enables them to retain memory of previous inputs and focus on solving challenges in real time.

Types of Deep Learning Networks

types of deep learning

1. Perceptron

Perceptron in deep learning

The Minsky-Papert perceptron model is among the probably the easiest and oldest Neuron models. It is the smallest neural network unit that performs specific computations to detect features or business analytics in input data. It takes weighted inputs and applies the activation function to get the final result. TLU stands for perceptron (threshold logic unit)

Perceptron is a binary classifier that is a supervised learning algorithm that classifies data into two categories.

2. Feed Forward Neural Networks

Feed Forward Neural Networks in deep learning

The most basic type of neural network, in which input data flows in only one direction, transferring via artificial neural nodes as well as exiting through output nodes. In areas where hidden layers may or may not exist, input and output layers are present. They are also categorised as a single-layered or multi-layered feed-forward neural network based on this.

The number of layers is determined by the function's complexity. It has only one way of propagating forward and no way of propagating backward. Weights are fixed in this case. Inputs are increased by weights to feed an activation function. A classification activation function or a step activation function is utilized to accomplish this.

Applications Of Feed Forward Neural Networks

  1. Simple classification

  2. Pattern Recognition

  3. Computer Vision

  4. Sonar Target Recognition

  5. Speech Recognition

  6. Handwritten Characters Recognition

3. Multilayer Perceptron

An entry point into sophisticated neural nets, where input data is routed through multiple layers of artificial neurons. Each node is linked to each and every neuron in the next layer, resulting in a completely connected neural network. There are input and output layers, as well as several hidden layers for a total of approximately three or more layers. It has bidirectional propagation, which means it can propagate both forward and backward.

Inputs are incremented by weights and supplied into the activation function, in which they are modified in backpropagation to start reducing loss. Weights are simply machine-learned values from Neural Networks. They identity based on the differences between predicted and training outputs. Softmax as an output layer activation function is used after nonlinear activation functions.

Applications Of Multilayer Perceptron

  1. Speech Recognition

  2. Machine Translation

  3. Complex Classification

4. Convolutional Neural Network

Convolutional Neural Network in deep learning

In place of the standard two-dimensional array, a convolution neural network has a three-dimensional arrangement of neurons. The first layer is referred to as a convolutional layer. Each convolutional layer neuron only processes information from a small portion of the field of vision.

Like a filter, input characteristics are taken in batches. The network understands images in segments and can perform these processes numerous times to finish the entire image processing. The image is converted from RGB or HSI scale to greyscale during computation. Further changes in pixel value will aid in detecting edges, and pictures can be divided into various categories.

Applications Of Convolutional Neural Network

  1. Video Analysis.

  2. Anomaly Detection

  3. Machine translation

  4. Checkers Game

5. Recurrent Neural Networks

Recurrent Neural Networks in deep learning

Recurrent Neural Networks are constructed to store the output of a layer and feed it back into the input to predict future the layer's result. The first layer is generally a feed forward neural network, followed by a recurrent neural network layer in which a memory function remembers some data from the previous time-step.

In this particular instance, forward propagation is used. It saves information that will be needed in the future. If the prediction is incorrect, the learning rate is used to make minor adjustments. As a result, it gradually improves towards making the correct prediction during backpropagation.

Applications Of Recurrent Neural Networks

  1. Text to speech processing

  2. Time Series Anomaly Detection

  3. Machine translation

  4. Music Composition

5. Restricted Boltzmann Machine

RBMs are a whole other type of Boltzmann Machine. The neurons in the input layer and the hidden layer have symmetric connections between them. However, no inbuilt association exists inside the respective layer. However, unlike RBM, Boltzmann machines include interconnections within the hidden layer. These constraints in BMs enable the algorithm to train more efficiently.

Applications Of Restricted Boltzmann Machine

  1. Filtering

  2. Feature Learning

  3. Risk Detection

  4. Business and Economic analysis

What Is the Difference Between Deep Learning and Machine Learning?

Difference Between Deep Learning and Machine Learning

Deep learning is a subset of machine learning. A machine learning workflow begins with manual process extracting relevant features from pictures. After that, the attributes are used to build a model that categorises the objects within the image. Essential parts from pictures are developed to extract using a deep learning workflow. Furthermore, deep learning needs to perform "end-to-end learning," in which a network is provided original data and a job to conduct, like classification, and it instantaneously learns how to complete it.

Another significant distinction is that deep learning algorithms expand with data, meanwhile shallow learning accumulates. Shallow learning is an approach to machine-learning techniques that reach a plateau in performance because more illustrations and testing dataset are added to the network.

Deep learning networks have the advantage of often improving as the length of your massive data.

To sort images in machine learning, users manual process select features and a classifier. Deep learning automates the feature extraction and modelling processes.

deep learning advantages over machine learning

  1. Processing unstructured data efficiently

  2. Pattern recognition and the discovery of hidden relationships

  3. Unsupervised learning

  4. Processing of volatile information

Difference Between Deep Learning and Machine Learning

Deep Learning Models: How to Create and Train Them

The three most commonly used applications of deep learning for object classification are:

Deep learning process

Scratch Training

To train a deep model from scratch, you must first collect a massive amount of labelled data and then layout a network architecture which will discover the features and model. his is beneficial for brand-new applications or applications with a sizable amount of output categories. This is a less popular method because these networks typically take days or weeks to train due to the large amount of data and rate of learning.

Transfer Learning

The transfer learning approach is used in the majority of deep learning applications, which includes fine-tuning a pre - trained model. Begin with just a current network, like AlexNet or GoogLeNet, as well as feed in new data with previously unknown classes. After a few network tweaks, users can now perform a given mission, such as categorising only dogs or cats rather than 1000 different objects. This has the added benefit of requiring far less data (needed to process thousands of pictures rather than millions), reducing computation time to minutes or hours.

Feature Extraction

Using the network as a feature extractor is an a little less common, more specialised approach to deep learning. Because each layer is tasked with learning specific characteristics from images, we can extract these features from the network at any point during the training phase. These characteristics can then be fed into a machine learning model like support vector machines (SVM).

Deep learning applications

Real-world deep learning applications are ubiquitous, but in many cases, they are so well incorporated into services and products that consumers are uninformed of the complicated data handling that is going to take place in the background. Among these examples are the following:


Since the digitalisation of health records and images, the health sector has reaped significant benefits from deep learning capabilities. Image recognition software can help diagnostic imaging specialists and radiologists analyse and evaluate more images in much less time.

Financial services

Financial firms routinely use forecasting analytics to support algorithmic stock trading, analyse business risks for consumer loans, detect fraud, and assist clients in managing credit and investment portfolios.

Law enforcement

Deep learning algorithms can analyse and discover from transactional data to spot potentially fraudulent or criminal patterns. By extracting patterns and evidence from sound and video recordings, images, and documents, voice recognition, computer vision, and other deep learning applications can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of investigative analysis, allowing law enforcement to analyse large amounts of data more quickly and accurately.

Voice Controlled Assistance

Numerous businesses use deep learning algorithms in their customer support processes. Chatbots, which are used in a wide range of applications, assistance, and customer service portals, are a simple form of AI. Traditional chatbots, which are commonly found in call center-like menus, use natural language and even visual recognition.


Deep learning models are utilized to control robots and drones, as well as to improve their perception and interaction with their surroundings.


Deep learning models are used to start creating more realistic characters and environments, as well as to enhance gameplay.

Social Media

Deep learning algorithms are applied to detect fake news, flag potentially harmful content, and filter out spam.

Automatic Text Generation

A collection of text is learned, and new text is generated, word by word or character for character, using this model. The model can then learn how to spell, punctuate, form sentences, and even capture the style.

Limitations and challenges

  1. Deep learning necessitates a large amount of data. Furthermore, more powerful and precise models will require more parameters, which will necessitate more data.

  2. Deep learning models are becoming rigid after training and are incapable of multitasking. They can provide effective and precise solutions to a single problem. Even resolving a similar issue would necessitate retraining the system.

  3. Long-term scheduling and algorithm like data manipulation are totally outside of what existing deep learning algorithms can do, even with massive amounts of data, in just about any application that requires rationale, such as program development or trying to apply the scientific process.

Advantages of Deep Learning

  1. Best problem-solving performance in class.

  2. It eliminates the requirement for feature engineering.

  3. Removes unnecessary costs.

  4. Easily detects defects that are difficult to detect.

Disadvantages of Deep Learning

  1. A significant amount of data is required.

  2. Training is computationally expensive.

  3. There is no solid theoretical foundation.


1. What is deep learning?

Deep learning is a type of machine learning which uses algorithm analysis to automatically learn and enhance functionality. Artificial neural networks are used by the algorithms to learn and enhance their performance by mimicking how people think and acquire knowledge.

2. What is deep learning Good For?

A form of machine learning known as "deep learning" combines algorithm analysis to dynamically learn and improve functionality. The algorithms learn and improve their performance by imitating how individuals think and learn using artificial neural networks.

3. Why is deep learning used?

Large-scale data interpretation and information generation are made quicker and simpler using deep learning. It is employed in a variety of sectors, including automated driving and medical equipment.

4. How does deep learning relate to neural networks?

Deep learning uses and acts on neural networks. The neural networks help to make learning happen by supporting the process.

5. How does AI compare to deep learning?

AI comes in many forms, including machine learning and deep learning. Artificial intelligence is a subset of machine learning, which is a subset of deep learning. Machine learning can automatically adapt with little human intervention thanks to deep learning, which uses artificial neural networks to simulate the learning process in the human brain.


This concludes our discussion of "What is deep Learning". I sincerely hope that you learned something from it and that it improved your knowledge. You can visit logicmojo to learn more about other topic related to this field.

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