The world in 2023 in which we live is moving more and more online. As a result, In 2023, there is a growing need for new software and apps to accommodate the growing number of users. Software testers are more in demand due to the need for a quality control system caused by all of this new development.
In this harsh industry, testing is essential to the success of any software product. Software development relies heavily on manual tests, which are useful in situations where you can't use automated testing. As a result, there is still a high demand for individuals with manual testing-related skills. You may master software testing in 2023 with the help of this article on manual testing interview questions.
It involves inspecting every given piece of software to see if it satisfies the needs of the stockholders, finding flaws, and determining the item's general quality by evaluating its functionality, features, quality, utility, and completeness. In the end, it's quality assurance.
Software testing is a necessary step that ensures the software product is secure and suitable for market release. Here are some strong arguments that demonstrate the necessity of testing:
It highlights the flaws and mistakes that were committed throughout the development stages.
reduces code cycles by finding problems at the beginning of the development process.
ensures that software applications produce more accurate, trustworthy results that are consistent, and require less maintenance.
Testing makes ensuring that the consumer continues to be satisfied with the application and finds the company to be trustworthy.
ensures that software is free of bugs and that the product's quality is up to par with industry standards.
makes ensuring that there are no application failures.
Despite being a vast field, software testing can be largely divided into two domains, such as:
Manual Testing: The earliest sort of software testing is manual testing, in which test cases are manually carried out without the aid of test automation technologies. It indicates that QA testers manually test the software programme.
Automation testing: Automation testing is the practise of running test cases by repeatedly executing pre-defined tasks with the aid of tools, scripts, and software. The goal of test automation is to replace manual human labour with more efficient technologies or tools.
When one or more of the following circumstances occur, testing (both manual and automated) can be suspended.
Once a full cycle of test cases has been run following the most recent bug fix with the agreed-upon pass-percentage, the testing phase may be terminated.
When the testing deadline has been reached and there are no outstanding issues of high priority, testing may be terminated.
MTBF, or mean time between failures, measures how long it takes for two inherent failures to occur. If the MTBF is quite high, one can halt the testing process based on stakeholder considerations.
Based on code coverage value - When the automated code coverage reaches a particular threshold value with a high enough pass rate and no critical bugs, the testing phase may be terminated.
The process of running a programme to check for errors and ensure that the software complies with all specifications provided by stakeholders is known as quality control. The goal of quality assurance is to ensure that the processes, procedures, and methodologies utilised to produce high-quality outputs are properly implemented.
Seven principles govern software testing:
Absence of defects fallacy: Even if a piece of software is 99% bug-free, if it does not meet the needs of the user, it is useless. Software must 99% of the time be bug-free and conform to all user requirements.
Testing can confirm the existence of software flaws, but it cannot ensure that the software is fault-free. Testing reveals the presence of mistakes. Defects can be reduced in quantity but not entirely eliminated by testing.
It is impossible to test the software exhaustively, which means that not all potential test cases can be addressed. Only a small number of test cases can be used for testing, and it is presumed that the software will always deliver the desired results. It is not practical to run the software through every test scenario because it would be more expensive, more time consuming, etc.
Clustering of defects: The majority of flaws are often concentrated in a limited number of project modules. According to the Pareto Principle, 20% of modules are responsible for 80% of software defects.
Pesticide Paradox: Repeatedly running the same test cases makes it impossible to discover new bugs. In order to discover new bugs, it is therefore required to update or create new test cases.
Early testing: Early testing is essential for identifying software flaws. Defects will be easier to find and more reasonably priced to fix in the early stages of the SDLC. Software testing ought to begin during the requirement analysis stage of software development.
The testing approach differs based on the environment of the software development process. Depending on the kind, multiple types of testing are required for software. for example, An Android app is evaluated in a different way than an edtech website.
Testing by automation has some benefits, including
Executing tests automatically is quick and saves a lot of time.
Testing is conducted with little danger of human error thanks to carefully prepared test scripts.
Using CI tools like Jenkins, test execution can be planned for a nightly run. Jenkins can also be set to deliver daily test findings to the right stakeholders.
Testing through automation uses a lot fewer resources. When tests are automated, quality assurance personnel spend nearly little time on test execution. conserving QA resources for more exploratory tasks.
The following are some drawbacks of automation testing:
Writing test scripts involves the expertise of professionals in automation testing. It takes more time up front to write scripts.
Automation scripts can only be used to validate the coded tests.
These tests might overlook some errors that are obvious to humans and easy to spot (manual QA).
Updates and maintenance to the script are necessary even when there are only minimal changes to the application.
Regression, according to the dictionary, is the action of returning to a former location or state. Regression in software refers to a feature that previously worked but abruptly ceased operating when a developer incorporated new code or functionality.
The software business is plagued with regression issues since new features are constantly being added. These features are not created independently from the current code by developers. Instead, the new code interacts with the old code and changes it in different ways, causing unintended side effects.
Therefore, there is always a potential that implementing new changes could have a detrimental effect on a functioning feature. Remember that even a modest adjustment has the potential to result in regression.
Regression testing makes ensuring that the addition of new code or changes to existing code don't alter the behaviour that is already in place. It enables the tester to confirm that the legacy code and the new code are compatible.
Testing a software system end to end is known as end to end testing. The programme is tested by the tester in an end-user-like manner. To test a desktop application, for instance, the tester would install the programme as the user would, launch it, use the programme as intended, and then check the behaviour. A web application is the same.
End-to-end testing differs significantly from other types of testing that are more isolated, like unit testing. End-to-end testing involves testing the software together with all of its integrations and dependencies, including databases, networks, file systems, and other third-party services.
Alpha Testing: Alpha testing is a type of software testing carried out to find defects before the product is made available to actual users or the general public. User acceptance testing includes alpha testing.
Beta testing: Beta testing is carried out in a real setting by actual users of the software programme. User acceptance testing also includes beta testing.
The testbed is a setting that has been set up for testing. The hardware and any software required to operate the application under test are all included in the testing environment. Hardware, software, network setup, a test application, and other relevant software make up the system.
It is a common software testing methodology that calls for testers to evaluate the product's functionality in light of the company's needs. The software is examined as a "black box" and validated from the viewpoint of the end user.
Application programming interfaces (APIs) are tested as part of the software testing process to see if they live up to expectations in terms of functionality, dependability, performance, and security. Simply said, the goal of API testing is to find errors, inconsistencies, or deviations from an API's expected behaviour.
Applications often have three distinct layers:
the user interface, or presentation layer
Application user interfaces or business layers for processing business logic
Data modelling and manipulation using a database layer
The programme can be tested in a variety of ways. Software developers perform some sorts of testing, while professional quality assurance staff performs others. The various types of software testing are listed below, along with a brief explanation of each.
Unit Testing: a programmed test that examines how a method or function, for example, operates inside.
Integration Testing: Ensures that a system's various parts will function as expected when put together to achieve a result.
Regression Testing: makes guarantee that previously working features are not damaged by fresh code modifications.
System Testing: To ensure that the entire system functions as planned, comprehensive end-to-end testing is performed on the entire software.
Smoke Testing: A fast check to make that the software starts up successfully and functions at the most fundamental level. Its term stems from hardware testing, which involves simply plugging in the gadget and checking to see if smoke comes out.
Performance Testing: Verifies that the software operates as expected by the user by examining the response time and throughput under particular load and conditions.
User Accepting Testing: ensures that the programme satisfies the needs of the users or clients. The software often reaches this stage just before going live, or into production.
Usability Testing: evaluates the software's usability. This is frequently done with a sample group of end customers who use the software and give comments on how simple or difficult it is to use.
Stress Testing: ensures that the software's performance won't suffer as the load rises. In stress testing, the programme is put to strong workloads, such as a lot of requests or strict memory requirements, to see if it functions properly.
Security Testing: more crucial than ever right now. In order to access private information, security testing aims to defeat software security safeguards. For web-based applications or other applications involving money, security testing is essential.
Software testing can only be successful with appropriate documentation. Documentation should include information on things like requirement specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, modifications to the code, test plans, test cases, problem reports, user manuals, etc.
You can more easily calculate the testing effort, test coverage, and monitoring and tracing requirements if you have the test cases documented. The following are some examples of frequently used documentation artefacts for software testing:
A server or computer that a tester uses to execute their tests makes up the test environment. It differs from a development machine and aims to simulate the real hardware that will be used to run the software when it is in use.
The tester upgrades the test environment with the most recent build of the software whenever a new build is made available and executes the regression test suite. The tester then moves on to testing new features after it passes.
The code coverage statistic determines how much of the program's source code was covered by the test plan when testing software. Parallel to actual product testing is code coverage testing. You may keep track of the statements being executed in your source code by using the code coverage tool. At the conclusion of the final testing, a detailed report of the pending statements and the coverage % are given.
The following are some examples of the various test coverage techniques:
Block and statement coverage counts the number of times the source code has been tested and run correctly.
Decision/Branch Coverage: This metric assesses the quantity of tested and implemented decision control mechanisms.
Path Coverage: This makes sure that tests are run on all potential paths across a given area of code.
Function coverage is a measure of how many times the source code's functions have been run and tested.
Software testing with gray-box testing: In the software testing process, a gray-box testing technique is a combination of a black-box and a white-box testing technique. With the help of this method, you can test a piece of software or an application while just knowing a portion of its internal workings.
Software testing white-box testing: A white-box test is a procedure for evaluating a programme that considers its internal operations. Both integration testing and unit testing make use of it.
When implementing the agile methodology for software testing, automation testing is quite advantageous. It aids in reducing sprint time while providing the greatest test coverage possible.
|Software bugs are flaws that appear when a programme or piece of software does not function as planned. A bug is a malfunctioning software programme brought on by a coding fault.||Because coding issues are what led to errors, the developer may have misinterpreted the need or incorrectly defined it, which resulted in the error.|
|The testers report the error.||Test engineers and developers report errors.|
|There are different kinds of bugs, such as logic, resource, and algorithmic flaws.||Errors come in a variety of forms, including syntax problems, handling flaws, user interface errors, flow control errors, calculation failures, and testing errors.|
|Before it is introduced into production, the software is identified.||When the code cannot be compiled, the error happens.|
A/B testing is the process of comparing the performance of two or more versions of your software with actual users. It is a safe technique to test different iterations of a current or new capability.
You can decide which users will use feature A. The opposing group employs feature B. The final version of the feature is then decided upon after statistical testing is used to evaluate user feedback and response.
A/B testing is frequently used to evaluate how alternative interfaces affect user experience. As a result, the group may quickly get feedback and test their initial theory.
No matter how detailed your test plan is, it is impossible to thoroughly test software or demonstrate that defects don't exist.
A thorough analysis that turns up hundreds of flaws doesn't necessarily mean that all of them have been found. The test may have overlooked a great deal more mistakes. The software is not flawless just because there aren't any bugs in it. It might readily refer to flawed or unfinished tests. You would need to test all potential inputs and their combinations in order to demonstrate that a software works.
Consider a straightforward software that accepts a ten-character string as input. You would need to enter 2610 names to test it with every conceivable input, which is not possible. Your best course of action as a tester is to select the test cases that are most likely to uncover mistakes because exhaustive testing is not practical. When you are confident enough to release the software and know it will function as expected, testing is sufficient.
Verification is a procedure for testing software while it is still in the development stage. It assists you in determining whether the outcome of a certain application complies with the demands made. After the development phase, software is evaluated to see if it satisfies the needs of the client. This process is known as validation.
Dynamic software testing examines the software while it is in use, as opposed to static testing. Testing involves running the software in a test environment, going through each step, entering the inputs, and comparing the actual output to the anticipated outcome.
Retesting a piece of software to determine whether previously reported bugs have been repaired is known as a confirmation test. When a test fails, testers often report a defect. The software gets updated after the developer team addresses the flaw. The testing team will retest the newly released software build to make sure that the reported bug was really fixed. It's also known as retesting.
Non-functional testing examines the system's non-functional requirements, which concern a feature or characteristic of the system that the client has specifically requested. Performance, security, scalability, and usability are a few of them.
Functional testing is followed by non-functional testing. It examines qualities in general that have nothing to do with the software's functional requirements. Non-functional testing guarantees the software's security, scalability, high performance, and ability to maintain stability under stress.
Black-box testing includes functional testing. As the name implies, it emphasises the functional requirements of the software rather than its technical implementation. An input or output need for a system is referred to as a functional requirement. Without taking into account non-functional characteristics like performance, usability, and reliability, it verifies the software in accordance with the functional specifications or requirements.
With the aid of data sources, such as a SQL database, CSV file, XML file, or Excel spreadsheet for input values, a set of test scripts, consisting of test cases, is consistently executed. Here, throughout the verification phase, the actual outcome is contrasted with the predicted one.
A bug's severity reflects its depth or weight. It aids in describing the application's viewpoint. Priority, on the other hand, discusses the bug that needs to be solved as soon as possible. Additionally, it describes the users' point of view.
A known bug release is when a certain software version is made available. These bugs often have low priority or severity.
Flaw leaking occurs when a bug is found by the end user but is not caught by the testing team when the product is being tested.
Browsers like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, and others are used to run all web apps. Although they all largely function the same in terms of putting the web standards into practise, there are little variations among them all. It's not always feasible for the software developer to thoroughly test the feature across several browsers, picking up on the minute anomalies.
When a web application is being tested cross-browser, a software tester opens it in each supported browser and attempts to test the same functionality on each one. Any unexpected behaviour in a browser that doesn't function as expected or has a different appearance is noted, along with the name and version of the browser, in the test report. This aids the programmer in correcting the behaviour in all the browsers when it fails to function properly.
In the event that a flaw is found early on in the project, it is crucial that the flaw be fixed then rather than later. When a fault is fixed later in the development cycle,
the cost of doing so rises significantly. The figure that follows illustrates how the price of repairing a fault rises over time is an example.
Eliminating flaws at the design phase is more cost-effective, while doing it during maintenance costs 20 times as much.
The objective of every software tester is to identify as many defects and issues as possible in the system so that the users won't have to. Consequently, a skilled software
tester needs to have an acute sense of detail. To detect flaws that are challenging to find with routine use of the software, they should be well-versed in the software
they are testing and push every part of it to its boundaries.
It's crucial to understand the application's domain. A tester won't be able to test software thoroughly if they don't comprehend the precise issues the programme is meant to address.
When performing testing, a good tester should have the end user in mind. It is easier for the tester to make sure the programme is useable and accessible when they have empathy for the end user. In addition, the tester should have a foundational understanding of programming to think like a developer and spot typical mistakes like null references and out-of-memory problems.
A tester needs to be proficient in verbal and written communication. A tester will usually have to communicate with management as well as developers. The developers should be able to understand the errors and issues they discovered during testing. A skilled tester should supply a thorough bug report that includes all the details a developer would need to address each issue. If they are hesitant to release the programme because it has unsolved flaws, they should be able to convince the management with a strong argument.
A subset of regression testing is referred known as "sanity testing." The sanity testing makes sure that the performance of the system is not adversely affected by the code changes. A sanity test is performed after receiving the software build to make sure that the code changes are functioning properly. This testing serves as a checkpoint to determine whether the build can continue with more testing. Sanity testing puts less emphasis on thorough testing and more on verifying the application's functionality.
The TestNG framework for Java is an open-source, sophisticated test automation framework made with both developers and testers in mind. The goal of TestNG is to offer an environment for automated tests that is simple to use, understandable, structured, maintainable, and user-friendly. In TestNG, NG stands for "Next Generation." Since you can test across several devices and browsers, high-end annotations like data providers make cross-browser testing simpler. Additionally, the framework includes a built-in method for managing exceptions that stops the programme from ending abruptly.