The rising use of computers and the internet has made networking a popular career choice for many. Be ready to respond to technical inquiries when you attend the network administrator job interview. The most often requested interview questions are covered in our comprehensive guide to networking interview questions and answers. Your technical knowledge, experience, and system preferences will be evaluated by these questions. Your ability to clearly express technical needs will be tested during the interview. The technical expertise required to complete the task will be put to the test.
A group of devices joined by a physical media link form a network.
In a network, one or more nodes connect two or more networks, or two or more nodes are connected by a physical link.
A network is a group of devices linked together so that data can be shared.
A network is what the internet is. The millions of individuals on the planet are connected by the internet.
We can categorise networks according to their size or range as follows:
A single person's own gadgets make constitute a PAN (Personal Area Network). It has a few metre range.
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) is a PAN that makes use of wireless technologies.
Local Area Networks, or LANs, are networks that can only communicate inside a relatively small space, such as a single room, a single building, an aeroplane, etc.
WLAN is a type of local area network that uses wireless technology for communication. Its scalability and the fact that wires don't need to be installed make it a popular arrangement.
CAN (Campus Region Network) is a system of fast computers that links LANs in a constrained geographic area, such as a college campus, a military installation, etc.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), often known as the metropolitan region network, is a high-speed (broadband) network that offers coverage across a wider area than a campus but is still somewhat constrained.
Wide Region Networks (WANs) use unconventional methods of communication, such as satellites, interoceanic cables, fibre optics, etc., to cover a broad geographic area. Utilize the media.
VPN and cloud computing are two technologies that could link two offices spread across different regions.
The term "internetworking," which combines the words "inter" and "networking," denotes a connection between utterly unrelated nodes or segments. This connection is made possible by intermediary hardware like routers or gateways. Interconnected was the initial term used for associate degree networks. Public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks frequently connect to one another. Therefore, a degree internetwork could be a collection of several networks that operate as a single large network and are connected by intermediate networking devices. The trade, goods, and methods used to address the difficulty of creating and managing internet works are referred to as internetworking.
Network topology refers to the actual configuration of the network, which binds together the various nodes. It demonstrates the connections between the gadgets, wires, computers, etc.
Two computers or computer systems can be directly connected using network cables. A cable is a rope comprised of various conductors that are separated from one another by insulation. Typically, a wrap is used to protect this cord, improving its strength and flexibility.
When selecting a network cable, various factors must be considered, including:
the length of that cable's required range
The fastest possible data transfer rate
the cable's outside sheath
The kind of network that will be built
The kind of braiding, shielding, and/or sheathing used
The connection between two or more computers or devices is essentially what makes up a link. Whether it is a wireless or physical connection determines what it can be. Physical links include hubs, switches, cables, and wireless links include access points, routers, and other wireless devices.
In a network, a node is the location where two paths converge. Within a network, nodes can send and receive data and information. There are two nodes in a network, for instance, if two computers are linked together to create it. Similar to how there will be three nodes if there are computers, and so on. Nodes don't have to be computers; they can be any type of communication equipment, including printers, servers, modems, and others.
The most fundamental part of every system that supports all other parts is its backbone. Similar to this, a backbone network in networking is a network with a high capacity connectivity architecture that connects various portions of the network to which it belongs.
A network must meet two basic requirements in order to be effective and efficient:
Performance: There are several different ways to measure performance, including transmit time and response time.
Reliability: Frequency of failure is a measure of reliability.
Robustness: Robustness refers to the trait or state of being robust and in good shape.
Security: It details ways to guard against viruses and unwanted access to data.
A local area network, or LAN, is a network of devices that are physically confined to a limited space. It has two options: wired and wireless. On the basis of the following elements, one LAN differs from another:
Network node arrangement is known as topology.
Refer to the guidelines for data transfer in the protocol.
Media: These devices can be linked together using twisted-pair cables, optical fibres, etc.
A UTP cable is a copper cable with a resistance of 100 ohms. It has between 1 and 1800 unshielded twisted pairs inside of a non-metallic housing. These twists offer protection to EMI and electrical noise.
HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, enables online communication. This protocol essentially outlines the format and transmission requirements for messages sent over the internet.
The port number 80 is what the TCP/IP protocol known as HTTP utilises.
Features of the HTTP Protocol
It has no connections.
does not rely on the connecting media type
A portion of a large network that is typically divided by a bridge or a router is referred to as a "subnet" in general. It also controls traffic flow and aids in
boosting network performance. It also works for the network's broadcast domains. Networking applications for the subnet include:
reducing network sluggishness
Changing IP address ranges
enhancing network safety
A router is a piece of hardware that moves data packets across a network. In essence, it handles the network's traffic-directing tasks. Anything, including an email or web page,
can be considered a data packet. At the intersection of two or more networks, or at gateways, are routers.
Routers come in two flavours: standalone and virtual. While virtual routers are actually software that mimics physical ones, standalone routers are more conventional equipment.
A physical link between two nodes is referred to as a point-to-point network. Any networked device, including a computer, printer, etc., may be involved.
The network architectural paradigm known as Open System Interconnections (OSI) is based on ISO standards. The OSI model connects systems that are accessible for communication with
other systems, which is why it has that name.
The seven layers of the OSI model. The following is a succinct summary of the principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers:
If a different abstraction is required, add a new layer.
Each layer ought to have a purpose that is clear.
The purpose of each layer is determined using protocols that are standardised globally.
It is possible for a network to self-correct network issues through the process of beaconing. This is one of the key networking interview questions, and yo u should also get ready for the associated terms.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a device in a network's unique numerical address. Given that IP is a datagram-oriented connectionless protocol, each packet must have a header including the source IP address, the destination IP address, and other necessary information.
Each computer or system connected to a private network is given a private IP address, which is a series of integers. Your mobile device or your home router, both of
which have a default local address, are examples of private IP addresses.
Public IP Address: Anyone using the Internet can see public IP addresses, which are universal addresses. For a user to connect to such gadgets, all they need is an internet connection.
Each layer's functionality and fixed bounds
Reliability is low
Vertical Layer Technique
Flexible architecture without rigid layer boundaries
Approach with Horizontal Layers
Information transmission over the World Wide Web is subject to a set of rules and criteria established by the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) (WWW). It makes it easier for web servers and browsers to communicate. This'stateless protocol' has commands that are independent of one another. HTTP is an application layer protocol built on the TCP network. The standard port is 80.
Secure HTTP, or HyperText Transfer Protocol, is a protocol for data transfers. It is an improved and secure version of HTTP. The SSL/TLS protocol is used to enhance HTTP's security. Transactions are safer and network servers can be identified more securely thanks to communication encryption. Usually, port 443 is employed.
SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. SMTP specifies the guidelines for server-to-server communication. With the help of this set of instructions, the software can send emails over the internet. Techniques such as store-and-forward and end-to-end are both supported. It is configured to always-listen on port 25.
A datagram-based protocol is the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Broadcasting and multicasting are its main uses. Its behaviour is essentially identical to that of the TCP/IP Protocol, with the three methods for handshaking and error checking being the only differences. It is less trustworthy because the transmission procedure doesn't include shaking hands.
There are passwords, tokens, and biometrics (such as a thumbprint or iris scan). Two of the techniques are used in two-level authentication.
A dynamic routing protocol is RIP (Routing Information Protocol). To choose the optimum route between the source and the destination, it uses hop count as its main statistic. With a value of 120 for AD (Administrative Distance), it operates at the application layer.
A Network Interface Controller is given a specific number for each machine called a MAC address, or Media Access Control address (NIC). Every device on a network is identified by a 48-bit number known as the physical address. For communications within networks like Ethernet and Wi-Fi, MAC addresses are utilised as a network address.
A network security system known as a firewall is used to monitor incoming and outgoing traffic and to prohibit it in accordance with firewall security policies. It serves as a barrier between networking equipment and the internet (public network) (a private network). Either a piece of hardware, a piece of software, or both are involved. It gives the network an additional layer of security.
A computer (or other device) with a static IP address is set up to constantly utilise the same IP address, whereas a dynamic IP address can change frequently and is controlled by a centralised network service.
Unicasting: The term "unicasting" refers to the transmission of a message from the source to a single node. This is frequently employed in networks to create new connections.
Anycasting: When a message is sent from the source to any of the nodes, it is referred to as anycasting. It is mostly used to retrieve content from any of the Content Delivery System servers.
Multicasting: When a message is sent from the source to a subset of nodes, it is referred to as multicasting. used to distribute the same data across numerous recipients.
Broadcasting: When a message is sent from a source to every node in a network, this is referred to as broadcasting.
A framework for network processes' communication is the client-server paradigm or architecture. This framework is distributed among service requestors, clients, and service providers and provides them with transparent access to all resources belonging to the workgroup and/or the entire organisation, across a variety of platforms, including applications, data, computing services, and other resources.
A network administration protocol is called DHCP, or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is used on UDP/IP networks and allocates IP addresses to the network's devices automatically. In consequence, this lessens the need for a network administrator to manually allocate IP addresses, which lowers mistake rates.
In two-way communication, the receiver sends a control frame, or ACK, to the receiver after receiving the data packets during transmission. However, the receiver waits until its network layer passes the subsequent data packet before sending the acknowledgment. The ACK is then added to the departing data frame. Piggybacking is the process of delaying the ACK and tying it to the subsequent outgoing data frame.
A file transfer protocol is called FTP. It is an application layer protocol that facilitates dependable and effective file and data transfers between hosts. It can also be used to download files to your computer from distant servers. Utilizing port
Essentially, Samba is a collection of open-source applications. It is compatible with many other operating systems, such as OpenVMS, IBM, etc. It is often used to connect Linux machines to Microsoft network resources by merely providing Microsoft SMB capability. It offers more secure, dependable, and rapid file and print services for each client or user utilising the SMB (Server Message Block) or CIFS (Central Server Message Block) protocol.
Address Resolution Protocol is an acronym. It is a protocol used at the network level to translate from the device's logical address, or IP address, to its physical address, or MAC address. It can also be used to discover a device's MAC address when it tries to connect to a local network.
Network Address Translation (NAT) is a technique that transforms a computer network's IP address into a single IP address for a local network. To share a single internet connection, it gathers all the devices on your local network and assigns them all a single IP address. In a local network, NAT is used by the router, computer, and firewall.
Several VPN types include:
Access VPN: Access VPN is used to connect telecommuters and remote mobile users. Dial-up and ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) connections can be replaced with it. It is an affordable solution that offers numerous connectivity options.
Site-to-Site VPN: A Site-to-Site or Router-to-Router VPN connects the network of one office to another in different places and is frequently used by large corporations with branches in several locations. There are two subcategories, as follows:
Intranet VPN: Using a shared infrastructure (servers and internet connectivity) and the same accessibility guidelines as a private WAN, an intranet VPN can be used to link remote offices in various geographic areas (wide area network).
Extranet VPN: Extranet VPN connects suppliers, customers, partners, and other organisations via dedicated connections over a common intranet infrastructure.
External users cannot discover the IP addresses of an internal network thanks to proxy servers. They effectively render a network invisible to outside users, who are unable to pinpoint its precise location without knowing its IP address.
Peer-peer processes are those on each system that interact at a certain layer.
Media Access Control Address
6 or 8-byte hexadecimal number
embedded with NIC
Work at Data Link Layer
It's a physical address
Internet Protocol Address
Formed from the network
Work at the Network layer
It is possible for a user to gain access to publicly available data using an anonymous FTP. The user must log in anonymously because he is not required to identify himself to the server.
In the event that anonymous ftp is requested, be careful to substitute "anonymous" for your user id. Anonymous FTPs are particularly efficient at transferring large files to a large number of recipients without requiring a tonne of different username/password combinations.
A networking tool called a network interface card is used to connect computers to a network. Internal network cards and external network cards are the two categories of these cards.
An IP address is the 32-bit dynamic address of a network node. Each of the four 8-bit octets that make up an IPv4 address can have a value between 0 and 255. IPv4 classes differ based on the number of hosts they can support on the network. The five different IPv4 classes are based on the first octet of IP addresses, which is categorised as Class A, B, C, D, or E.
The entire IP packet, including the headers and the content, is encrypted using tunnel mode. It primarily serves to encrypt communications between security gateways, firewalls, etc. in a Site-to-Site VPN.
A switch can take in packets more quickly than a shared link. It can hold and keep data for a considerable amount of time, but ultimately the switch will run out of buffer capacity, forcing some packets to be lost. A congested state is what this situation is.
Multiplexing is a group of techniques used in networking that enables the transmission of many signals simultaneously through a single data channel.
The procedures being followed are listed below:
To see if the content is current and already cached, first check your browser's cache.
If not, the browser checks to see if the IP address of the URL is already cached (by the browser and OS); if not, it asks the OS to use UDP to do a DNS query to obtain the URL's matching IP address from the DNS server and create a new TCP connection.
Three-way handshaking is used to establish a new TCP connection between the browser and the server.
The TCP connection is used to transmit an HTTP request to the server.
The web servers that are installed on the servers respond to incoming HTTP requests.
When the server's HTTP answer is processed by the browser, the TCP connection may be closed or used again for further requests.
Browsers cache the response data if it is cacheable.
Browser renders the content after decoding the response.
Denial-of-service attacks, also known as DoS attacks, are designed to prevent users from accessing the Internet or any other network services. These assaults often include multiple persons and can take many different forms. One common method for doing this is to overload the system server, which forces it to be reset because it can no longer handle legitimate traffic.
Gateways enable connectivity between two or more network segments. Typically, the gateway application and translation services are run on a computer. This translation is necessary for network communications between diverse platforms.